Medium early ripening blue wine variety. The variety was produced through the hybridisation of Helfensteiner x Heroldrebe(i.e Jakubská x Trolínská) varieties x (Blauer Portugieser x Blaufränkisch) in the grape breeding institute in Weinsberg, Germany.
The grapes are attractive and their taste pleasant without specific notes so are suitable for immediate consumption. The wine is of excellent quality, dark red colour, fine aroma and taste. Its intense colour makes it much sought after in Germany as an ingredient for the increased colour intensity of red wines as well as for maturation in barrique casks.
Probably an Austrian variety developed from the Heunisch variety. In our country this variety is only grown in Moravia since it is a late-ripening variety.
The wine colour is light or dark ruby with purple streaks. The young wine has hints of grass, which transform through ripening into blackberry notes. Blaufränkisch wines are more acidic than other red wines and their tannins are more astringent in the beginning.
This fact makes producers of quality Blaufränkisch wines considerably reduce their yield by grape thinning to extend the mash fermentation in order to obtain a higher extract. The cask maturation time of these wines is also longer. This and malolactic fermentation can achieve a stronger character of the red wine which does not lack spicy or fruity notes, despite its full-bodiedness. Blaufränkisch can be stored and its bottle aging is slow.
A blue grape variety with an unclear place of origin. Considering its distribution in the Danube region, the variety is assumed to come from Austria. In the Czech Republic Blauer Portugieser used to be the most widely grown variety thanks to its high productivity and fresh aroma. The shade of colour depends on the harvest size, but as a rule the wine is lighter than the Saint Laurent variety. The colour of a typical Blauer Portugieser is a fine ruby, the aroma delicate to floral and the flavour lighter, with a lower tannin content, harmonic and pleasant. The taste and aroma of this wine is reminiscent of flowers, fresh hay or cherries. Blauer Portugieser matures quickly and is generally not recommended for aging.
In Switzerland this variety is called Riesling x Silvaner according to the alleged hybridisation of these two varieties undertaken by Professor Herrmann Müller, originally from the Swiss canton of Thurgau. The hybridisation occurred in 1882 in the Research and Cultivation Institute in Geisenheim, Germany, where said professor taught botany at the time.
The high quality is only achieved by the wine if the habitat conditions at the harvest time permit. The aroma contains muscat tones with other fruity hints depending on the harvest altitude, the weather during the year and reduction through fining and filtration. Aromas may be that of young grass, lemon muscat, gooseberry or black currant.
As there was no grape variety producing the Muscat aroma in the wine from our wine producing areas, Ing. V. Křivánek of the Cultivation Centre at Polešovice tried to fill this gap by crossing the Muscat Ottonel and Prachttraube. He succeeded. Moravian Muscat soon became the most widely spread newly cultivated variety in our country.
Grape processing to quality wine with flowery Muscat aroma is demanding with regard to the winemaker’s craft both in the vineyard and in the cellar. Only wines with a sufficiently reductive character and pleasant acid content have a chance to be favourably accepted by the consumers. Inappropriate handling produces thin and flat wine with unpleasant lactic acid tones.
The variety comes from Austria. Legend has it that the grapes of this variety were washed up by the Danube in 1860s on the banks of the Oberarnsdorf River in the Wachau region. The grapes were found by winemakers Ch. Ferstl and F. Marchendl, planted in their vineyards in Arnsdorf village and made into a surprisingly good wine by them after the first harvest in 1872.
According to the current findings from a genetic analysis, the variety is an accidental hybrid of Roter Veltliner and Silvaner. The Neuburger variety used to be more widely spread in Moravia, superseding the then dominant Silvaner.
Neuburger wines are yellow or golden yellow in the case of the higher quality wines. Young Neuburger is distinguished by fine aroma redolent of nuts and its quality is average. Higher and more attractive quality is achieved by aging the wine in bottles. The wine becomes fuller-bodied through bottle aging with the increased volume of bouquet substances of red fruits, increased viscosity and velvety mouthfeel. The after-tone is harmonic, neutral and long. An average young wine often becomes an attractive mature bottled wine.
Like Chardonnay this Burgundian variety is widespread around the world, where it is known by its original French name almost everywhere. The variety genotype includes parents of the spontaneously developed natural hybrid Pinot Meunier x Savignon.
Emperor Charles IV had Pinot Noir imported to Bohemia from France. One Mělník citizen called winemakers with families from Burgundy to introduce Pinot growing in the Mělník region with techniques imported from Burgundy. The inscription Chambertin 1348 was carved into the stone of the support terrace of one of the Mělník vineyards to commemorate the place from where the vine was imported.
Wines of the Pinot Noir variety are usually ruby in colour with golden lining where the wine surface meets the glass wall. The aroma of the young wine is reminiscent of blackberries, strawberries, or black cherries in the case of well ripened grapes. Mature wine aroma includes leather, burning wood smoke, decomposing foliage, prunes and damson cheese. The taste of a well finished wine is very pleasant because of its low acid content, fine tannins, velvety mouthfeel and overwhelming full-bodiedness accentuated by ripening.
This wine is good for long-term storage. The Pinot Noir variety is used not only for red wine production. Whole grape pressing easily produces colourless clarets which form the basis for the production of Champagne.
Known mostly by the original French name Pinot Gris, the wine is called Ruländer in Germany after the wine merchant J. S. Ruland, who sold the variety in the Paletinate region.
Pinot Gris resulted from mutations of Pinot Noir and has since spread around the world. Pinot Gris is a variety with expectations of full-bodiedness, velvet mouthfeel, high extract and citrus tones in connection with hints of honey.
To achieve the typical properties, late harvest quality grapes and better are needed. Then the properties begin to include higher alcohol and glycerol content, which to a certain extent imitates a sweet sensation, which together with the actual residual sugar balances the prevalence of alcohol over acids. Their content must be carefully monitored during winemaking just as the colour shade of the wine, which may quickly turn pink in the case of insufficiently rapid processing of the grey-blue grapes.
The variety is assumed to originate from the upper Rhine region. Its cultivation has been documented in Germany since 1435. The variety, however, was not very popular and was only grown in combination with other varieties. Thus its unique properties could not stand out - mainly as the grapes of this late-ripening variety were harvested too early together with the others.
Only in 18th century was the high value of Rhine Riesling discovered by accident. In 1775 a courier brought a much delayed grape-picking permit from the prior of the Benedictine Order to the Benedictine Monastery in Johannisberg in the Rhine Region . The monks patiently waited for the permit, although most of the grapes had already began to develop mould. The mouldy and healthy grapes were processed separately after the harvest. To the monks’ great surprise, the grapes that caught the noble rot produced the best Riesling they had ever tasted.
Rhine Riesling is a green-yellow wine with golden shades appearing in the maturing wine or even amber shades for the Beerenauslese wine (made from individually picked grapes). The aroma may include fruits - peach, unripe apple, lemon peel, quince or even apricot and pineapple in the case of softer wines. The aroma may also be spicy, mineral, earthy or smoky. Maturing wine develops honey, marzipan, almond and raisin aromas. Too mountainous localities can add petroleum and kerosene notes when most berries are over-ripened in the sun to a brownish colour.
The origin is unknown and unrelated to Rhine Riesling. Welschriesling wines cover the whole qualitative range of white wines from premium wines with red currant or gooseberry aromas or the scent of meadow flowers on chalky soil to delicate honey ripened wines of selected grapes with raisin flavour and fine botrytis undertones.
Welschriesling always provided welcomed ingredients for effervescent wines and is still a very important component of all brand wines where it forms the backbone of a mix, which might collapse into softly melting languidity without its presence.
It probably comes from the French regions of Bordeaux or the Loire. When the French "Huguenot" King Henry IV of Navarre (1553–1610) was a baby, his grandfather soothed his crying by smearing his lips with garlic paste and Sauvignon wine. The adult king was a great lover of French wines, especially Sauvignon.
There are various types of this wine depending on the habitat of the grape, harvesting time and technology. In less favourable years, in northern wine-producing areas and under increased humid conditions, grassy, nettle and paprika tones develop in the nose and palate of the wine. Fruit tones appear under conditions of more sunshine and in better ripened grapes, first black currant, gooseberry, and kiwi with lemon hints and then in softer and rounded wines peach, nectarines and melon. Sweet selections include apricot, orange, pineapple and marzipan tones. Tropical fruits from overseas appear too.
A French variety, genetic analyses have shown its relation to Burgundian varieties. The variety was spread most widely in Austria and in our country only after high vine positions in vineyards were introduced, which suits this variety best.
Saint Laurent wine is popular in our country for its dark red colour, strong wild cherry and sometimes even black currant aroma, typical varietal character and interestingly structured tannins. Young wine is sometimes excessively burdened with acids. This wine ideally matches red meat and intensely flavoured cheese.
Gewürztraminer is closely related to wild growing forest vines from which it could have developed through accidental hybridisation with some of the ancient cultivated varieties grown by the Romans.
Gewürztraminer wines are more intense in colour than other white wines - they are green-yellow to golden-yellow. Typical features of Gewürztraminer wines include rich spicy aroma, which are tinged sweetly with the honey notes of raisins in high quality premium wines. Wine made from a suitably large harvest and sufficiently ripened grapes will taste differently from all other white wines. Its basic aroma can be compared to tea rose accompanied by other aromas like cinnamon, orange blossom and citrus fruits. Most Gewürztraminers contain different levels of sugar residues supporting their typical aroma and taste.
Gewürztraminer wines are distinguished by long persistence and are not made for ordinary consumption as they require a specific mindset and enough time to enjoy all the experiences they have to offer.
The wine probably comes from Austria where it is most widely spread. The variety is grown in 48% of the country’s total vineyard area.
The colour of the wine is green-yellow and young wine is fresh and peppery sometimes with light cigar notes. Vineyards on clay soil produce the aroma of linden blossom, Paleosol lends the aroma of bitter almond and loess results in a spicy note. Bottle aging produces at first strengthened spicy pepper tones which disappear later, replaced with an almond taste refined in premium quality wines by a velvety fullness.
This variety was cultivated by the headmaster of the school of viticulture at Klosterneuburg, Austria, Dr. F. Zweigelt, in 1922, while the credit for its spread after World War II belongs to Dr. Lenz Moser. At present this variety is most popular in Austria and the areas on which it is grown keep increasing.
The variety is a hybrid (Saint Laurent x Blaufränkisch) similar to Blaufränkisch. The wine is dark garnet with purple streaks and a spicy fruit aroma, often reminiscent of berries. The taste largely depends on the number of grapes per plant.
Limited harvest results in colourful, full wine, fine and soft after maturation, not lacking in sufficient tannins and a certain crisp zest.